Water is not only a life sustaining resource but also accounted for social well-being and economic prosperity. It plays an important role in managing healthy ecosystem. Besides the fact that plenty of water is found on the surface of earth, only 2.5% is available as freshwater. The floods and droughts are considered as major water challenges for 21st century globally. The phenomenon like global warming and climate change further aggravates towards the severity of these challenges. The climatic analysis dictate that the amount of rainfall has been increased annually however, the rainfall is mostly not available when it is critically required for crops to grow healthy. On contrary, the heavy rainfall triggers flash flooding which not only damages infrastructure, property and crops but unrecoverable loss of important lives of people. The tsunami and other recent flooding events happened in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and China are the worst examples of these disasters. It is believed that the proper exploitation of this huge potential could help in mitigation of drought prevalence conditions.
The environmental damage together with climate change is driving the water-related crises which we are facing around the world. The protection of watersheds reduces the risk of ecosystem degradation in terms of providing clean water at downstream. The degradation of vegetation, soil, rivers and lakes directly impacts floods, drought and water pollution. In the context of food security, the role of ecosystem services is very crucial. It is now time to focus on to explore nature-based solutions which have great potential to salve the complex water related challenges. There is a need to emphasize more for the promotion of green-infrastructure approach which has the revolutionary benefits for human beings in sustainably managing the environment and ecosystem as a whole. The adoptability of such approach will provide integrated and visible benefits of nature to people in the form of availability of abundant food, clean water and healthy air.
Groundwater and the water from dams (made on rivers/streams), lakes and river themselves are the major freshwater resources in Pakistan. Pakistan is one of the top five countries worldwide in improving access to clean water, decent toilets and good hygiene. But despite this impressive progress, 22 million people still have no choice but to drink dirty water, and more than two in five people don’t have a decent toilet.